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2.9 stars (229 ratings)


Sandra  
A mechanical engineer with military discipline can do anything but nothing.

#Philosophy


Maja  
Teachers are not mere mechanistic purveyors of information. They are educators.
#education
#philosophy
#wisdom


Lena  
Imagine not existing.

#philosophy


Aline  
a PLAN is a DREAM with a DEADLINE.

Plans often work.
Dreams seldom come true.
#work
#Philosophy
#dreams


Kim  
Gepetto is a philosophy, not a person #Philosophy


Adriane  
There r no atheists in foxholes! #religion #philosophy


Pia  
Why is it the philosopher who is expected to be easier and not some scientist who is even more inaccessible?—Jacques Derrida #philosophy


Rena  
Correction does much, but encouragement does more.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Magdalene  
Amid the pressure of great events, a general principle gives no help.—Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel #philosophy #quotes


Amely  
If pain could have cured us we should long ago have been saved.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Annerike  
Der Philosophentweet des Tages #27

Der Aktive steht im Nebel und der Passive sieht alles klar?

#27 #Philosophie #Philosophy #Qotd


Franka  
Depression is rage spread thin.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Marlis  
If we choose, we can live in a world of comforting illusion.—Noam Chomsky #philosophy #quotes


Kathleen  
Vulnerability. Why do others reject it?
Is that we don’t want to be our true selves, or that we don’t know our true selves?

#Philosophy


Juliane  
A man's character is his fate.—Heraclitus #philosophy #quotes


Doreen  
The human body is the best picture of the human soul.—Ludwig Wittgenstein #philosophy #quotes


Silvia  
Every author in some way portrays himself in his works, even if it be against his will.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Monetta  
He who controls others may be powerful, but he who has mastered himself is mightier still.—Lao Tzu #philosophy #quotes


Metha  
It is seldom that liberty of any kind is lost all at once.—David Hume #philosophy #quotes


Elisabeth  
Hope is a good breakfast, but it is a bad supper.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Laura  
What do I care about the purring of one who cannot love, like the cat?—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Christl  
Reason is not automatic. Those who deny it cannot be conquered by it. Do not count on them. Leave them alone.—Ayn Rand #philosophy


Anka  
Every existing thing is born without reason, prolongs itself out of weakness, and dies by chance.—Jean-Paul Sartre #philosophy #quotes


Vanessa  
anyone who’s ever written an A worthy philosophical exegesis hit my line pls #philosophy #exegesis


Helena  
The infinitely little have a pride infinitely great.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Klementine  
If evil be spoken of you and it be true, correct yourself, if it be a lie, laugh at it.—Epictetus #philosophy #quotes


Stephanie  
By appreciation, we make excellence in others our own property.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Isi  
We only consult the ear because the heart is wanting.—Blaise Pascal #philosophy #quotes


Magdalena  
Next to religion, let your care be to promote justice.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Else  
Nothing shows a man's character more than what he laughs at.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Anneli  
Today, I am wan with the universe.#philosophy #comedy.


Meike  
Is it #ironic to hope that my book on the #Cynics of Ancient Greek #philosophy arrives today?


Swantje  
Job application season has officially begun. First application submitted! Wish me luck (and send me job ads)! #Philosophy


Elsabe  
Looking forward to tonight's sporting event! Robots exclusion?? Hey Now!
#jobskills #philosophy


Evi  
Der Philosophentweet des Tages #20

Unter welcher Aussage ist “gut“ überstrapaziert?

#20 #Philosophie #Philosophy #Qotd


Svetlana  
Is there anyone so wise as to learn by the experience of others?
»François-Marie Arouet

#Voltaire #philosophy #france


Franziska  
value yourself, then others will #value you! #philosophy


Kathrinchen  
The status quo persists because there are no ways up from the bottoms. ~ Stokely Carmichael #philosophy #africanaphilosophy


Cordelia  
Warum Ist Erde rund ? Warum Dinge Fest,flüssig und gasförmig Warum... lebe als Philosoph und hinterfrage immer alles #philosophy


Biggi  
Our #philosophy is simple - do things well but do them using distributed ledgers


Tilla  
We suffer because we want to suffer. The more I chase money the more I suffer... #philosophie #philosophy


Aloisia  
Jean-François #Lyotard was one of the founders of #postmodernism. #philosophy


Jacqui  
Our #philosophy is simple - do things well but do them cost-effectively


Lilia  
“Trust yourself. You know more than you think you do.”
― Benjamin Spock #parenting #philosophy #trustyourself


Ria  
Our #philosophy is simple - do things well but do them rapidly


Susanna  
Man is a political animal
Aristotle
#philosophy


Titus  
Life is what you make it, so make the best of it
#philosophy


Lilly  
Character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion.—Aristotle #philosophy #quotes


Elfie  
Consider this:
Nothing is something;
Not anything is nothing.
#philosophy #logic #kindatired


Pia  
Life is a necessary consequence of existence. #philosophy #philosophie


Susanna  
As much as we thirst for approval, we dread condemnation.

#philosophy #gyaan


Kathrina  
He must be very ignorant for he answers every question he is asked.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Maike  
Marriage, a market which has nothing free but the entrance.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Luzia  
“Is life not a thousand times too short for us to bore ourselves?” — Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil #philosophy


Klementine  
A man has free choice to the extent that he is rational.—Thomas Aquinas #philosophy #quotes


Lina  
Has it really taken me so long to discover and fall in ❤︎ with the writings of Iris Murdoch? #literature #philosophy


Evelyn  
I am indeed amazed when I consider how weak my mind is and how prone to error.—Rene Descartes #philosophy #quotes


Kassandra  
Basta im ready, mentally and physically charr #Philosophy


Kerstin  
There is no escape--- we pay for the violence of our ancestors. #Philosophy #Deep #Truth


Dela  
Life is like balancing a scale, not swinging a pendulum. #philosophy #zen


Janine  
Courage is knowing what not to fear.—Plato #philosophy #quotes


Jessica  
Wisdom is found only in truth.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Anke  
We have known since Kant that machines is still an open question. #philosophy


Martina  
Life is not a spectacle or a feast; it is a predicament.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Sarina  
Music in the soul can be heard by the universe.—Lao Tzu #philosophy #quotes


Karolina  
The unnatural, that too is natural.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Finchen  
When you're surrounded by threats you'll be surrounded by allies willing to confront them.

#Philosophy #Climate


Ilse  
One of the joys of teaching #philosophy is seeing your students light up in such a way that it appears they are seeing the world afresh.


Evchen  
Those who cannot understand how to put their thoughts on ice should not enter into the heat of debate.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy


Anneli  
„Wenn du erkennst, dass es dir an nichts fehlt, gehört dir die ganze Welt.“ Laotse #philosophy #philosophie


Filippina  
Some are made modest by great praise, others insolent.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Milli  
All men by nature desire knowledge.—Aristotle #philosophy #quotes


Genia  
If all men knew what others say of them, there would not be four friends in the world.—Blaise Pascal #philosophy #quotes


Evelore  
The dreamer can know no truth, not even about his dream, except by awaking out of it.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Anni  
It is an absolute and virtually divine perfection to know how to enjoy our being rightfully.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Kathrein  
It is my opinion that the Observer Effect is greater than the sum of its parts. #philosophy


Katharina  
Reading is equivalent to thinking with someone else's head instead of with one's own.—Sir Arthur Charles Clarke #philosophy #quotes


Kathrina  
My colleagues have falsely proposed that a turing machine is not well posed. #philosophy


Evelore  
Why is the Monad sacred? Because all things have a center. #philosophy #numberology


Roselotte  
Will localizes us, thought universalizes us. #quote #philosophy


Sophie  
Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.—Jean-Jacques Rousseau #philosophy #quotes


Merlind  
Even the reductionists have to concede that the intentional stance is still an open question. #philosophy


Adela  
Not being able to govern events, I govern myself.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Jennifer  
Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Dorette  
What is important in life is life, and not the result of life.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Gabi  
Once made equal to man, woman becomes his superior.—Socrates #philosophy #quotes


Karolin  
Wisdom begins in wonder.—Socrates #philosophy #quotes


Jannika  
The fortune which nobody sees makes a person happy and unenvied.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Maleen  
Prosperity is not without many fears and distastes; adversity not without many comforts and hopes.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Dorlinde  
For my name and memory I leave to men's charitable speeches, and to foreign nations and the next ages.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Jacky  
I HATE this classsssss #Philosophy


Stefanie  
If the grace of God miraculously operates, it probably operates through the subliminal door.—William James #philosophy #quotes


Hetty  
Madness is rare in individuals - but in groups, parties, nations, and ages it is the rule.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Lena  
Life and death are one thread, the same line viewed from different sides.—Lao Tzu #philosophy #quotes


Isabell  
I study myself more than any other subject. That is my metaphysics, that is my physics.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Brita  
An ant on the move does more than a dozing ox.—Lao Tzu #philosophy #quotes


Fritzi  
Does wisdom perhaps appear on the earth as a raven which is inspired by the smell of carrion?—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Adela  
Law, without force, is impotent.—Blaise Pascal #philosophy #quotes


Telse  
It is as hard and severe a thing to be a true politician as to be truly moral.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Ira  
Avoid more. #philosophy


Sarah  
I hate victims who respect their executioners.—Jean-Paul Sartre #philosophy #quotes


Marie  
“I do not wish women to have power over men, but over themselves.”
--Mary Wollstonecraft #Philosophy


Sylvius  
Obscenity is whatever happens to shock some elderly and ignorant magistrate.—Bertrand Russell #philosophy #quotes


Lina  
America is a young country with an old mentality.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Kristiane  
Das Wesen des Daseins liegt in seiner Existenz.

Heidegger

#philosophy #ontology


Lotte  
Sanity is madness put to good use.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Antje  
A man's character is his guardian divinity.—Heraclitus #philosophy #quotes


Annelene  
No one lies so boldly as the man who is indignant.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Stefanie  
The body is an instrument, the mind its function, the witness and reward of its operation.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Line  
Bad #theology is often produced because of bad #philosophy.


Ingunde  
It is my opinion that qualia is greater than the sum of its parts. #philosophy


Katherina  
I quote others only in order the better to express myself.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Therese  
When you look into an abyss, the abyss also looks into you.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Roselies  
Philosophy is just a hobby. You can't open a #philosophy factory. ~Dewey Selmon


Sofie  
Beauty is the bait which with delight allures man to enlarge his kind.—Socrates #philosophy #quotes


Mirjam  
Always like Camus, #quoteoftheday #love #Philosophy “Blessed are the hearts that can bend; they shall never be broken.” Albert Camus


Edith  
The German language speaks Being, while all the others merely speak of Being.—Martin Heidegger #philosophy #quotes


Janine  
A wise man will make more opportunities than he finds.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Roswita  
Why are moral philosophers so entranced with “so a kid is drowning...” thought experiments? 😧 #philosophy


Sarah  
Reduce eternity to this moment and you will find eternity. #philosophy


Jeanett  
How did humanity survive before law, religion & government? 🤔🤔 #philosophy


Dorlinde  
All philosophy lies in two words, sustain and abstain.—Epictetus #philosophy #quotes


Amrei  
Know, first, who you are, and then adorn yourself accordingly.—Epictetus #philosophy #quotes


Isa  
Man is not the lord of beings. Man is the shepherd of Being.—Martin Heidegger #philosophy #quotes


Sybil  
Writing of one’s Philosophies is autobiographical in and of itself.

#Philosophy #Nietzsche


Christin  
Piety requires us to honor truth above our friends.—Aristotle #philosophy #quotes


Ingrun  
The history of all previous societies has been the history of class struggles.—Karl Marx #philosophy #quotes


Kassandra  
The logic of the world is prior to all truth and falsehood.—Ludwig Wittgenstein #philosophy #quotes


Mania  
One must ask children and birds how cherries and strawberries taste.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Josefine  
When one has a great deal to put into it a day has a hundred pockets.—Friedrich Nietzsche #philosophy #quotes


Constance  
Confidence in others' honesty is no light testimony of one's own integrity.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Monetta  
The fundament upon which all our knowledge and learning rests is the inexplicable.—Sir Arthur Charles Clarke #philosophy #quotes


Norman  
Any person of honor chooses rather to lose his honor than to lose his conscience.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Marlen  
Pictures and shapes are but secondary objects and please or displease only in the memory.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Leonie  
The finest souls are those that have the most variety and suppleness.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy #quotes


Elisabeth  
There's many a truth amongst the clichés. #Quote #Mindfulness #philosophy


Myrjam  
Friendship is the marriage of the soul, and this marriage is liable to divorce.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Fritzi  
Whatever can be noted historically can be found within history.—Martin Heidegger #philosophy #quotes


Ewa  
The primary use of conversation is to satisfy the impulse to talk.—George Santayana #philosophy #quotes


Doro  
I am a fictionalizing philosopher, not a novelist.

✍️: Philip K. Dick

#ScienceFiction #Philosophy #Writing


Kyra  
Opportunity is what is as visible after it’s exploited as it isn’t before it’s exploited. #opportunity #philosophy #lifecoaching


Anneliese  
Temperance is simply a disposition of the mind which binds the passion.—Thomas Aquinas #philosophy #quotes


Evelin  
I have always said and felt that true enjoyment can not be described.—Jean-Jacques Rousseau #philosophy #quotes


Isabell  
Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow. ~Albert Einstein
#QuoteOfTheDay #Weekend #Philosophy


Katrin  
It is human nature to be able to resist. It is a true martial artist who can capitalize on that resisting. #ClynchWork #Philosophy


Valeska  
Bias in favor of strength is inherently human. It occurs even in highly specialized societies.

#Philosophy #Leadership


Gabi  
You are You,but so is everything around you.. #GoodVibes #philosophy


Marie  
Fortune is like the market, where, many times, if you can stay a little, the price will fall.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Jessica  
melting asteroids waver with endless rifts,
#poetry #philosophy


Lilli  
Faith means belief in something concerning which doubt is theoretically possible.—William James #philosophy #quotes


Anny  
The man who occupies the first place seldom plays the principal part.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Roberta  
We have known since Kant that the Chinese Room is fallacious. #philosophy


Elfie  
Travelling is almost like talking with those of other centuries.—Rene Descartes #philosophy #quotes


Sarah  
What is uttered from the heart alone, Will win the hearts of others to your own.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Dahlia  
To create something you must be something.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Steve  
Quantum mechanics does my head in. #philosophy


Rilana  
omega spacetimes fluctuate behind eternal Telemachuses,
#poetry #philosophy


Genia  
Let us send insights to rescue our hero,
#poetry #philosophy


Tina  
The husband who decides to surprise his wife is often very much surprised himself.—Voltaire #philosophy #quotes


Karsta  
our tunneling Uruk on which rest baptismal protons,
#poetry #philosophy


Imke  
zeros and masses wavering wisely below sublime cosmologies,
#poetry #philosophy


Rosl  
the twisted mirror on which rest starlit Platos,
#poetry #philosophy


Klarissa  
Life has its own hidden forces which you can only discover by living.—Soren Kierkegaard #philosophy #quotes


Sylke  
Poor Odysseus is lost in vivid literatures,
#poetry #philosophy


Cindy  
contracting debates branching regularly,
#poetry #philosophy


Annette  
a thousand neutrons twisting understandingly,
#poetry #philosophy


Stefanie  
We do not learn; and what we call learning is only a process of recollection.—Plato #philosophy #quotes


Annelene  
majestic, starlit, and frantic -
#poetry #philosophy


Maleen  
quantum logistics spin below graviton goddesses,
#poetry #philosophy


Cordelia  
our neural compassion on which rest instinctive neutrons,
#poetry #philosophy


Cawia  
the graviton x-ray resting on the painted void,
#poetry #philosophy


Riana  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates cold tunnels,
#poetry #philosophy


Rosel  
Playing cheesy romantic songs while working on the dissertation so that it will love me is normal right #philosophy


Anna-Lisa  
Being is. Being is in-itself. Being is what it is.—Jean-Paul Sartre #philosophy #quotes


Stefanie  
starlit spaces meditating wisely,
#poetry #philosophy


Yasmin  
Poor Odysseus is lost in mirrored planetoids,
#poetry #philosophy


Thekla  
negativ geladene symmetrisch angelique -,
#poetry #philosophy


Lisel  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates virile heroes,
#poetry #philosophy


Jill  
as orbiting neutrons ripple majestically with mirrored wormholes,
#poetry #philosophy


Caroline  
archaic compassions derezzing superbly,
#poetry #philosophy


Joelle  
infrared universes branch below deep personalities,
#poetry #philosophy


Sarah  
theta solstices spinning superfluously,
#poetry #philosophy


Lisbeth  
A prudent question is one-half of wisdom.—Francis Bacon #philosophy #quotes


Maria  
It's necessary to have a diversity of skills to conceive of what needs to be accomplished first.

#Philosophy


Annalene  
Let us send platitudes to rescue our hero,
#poetry #philosophy


Marena  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates valiant energies,
#poetry #philosophy


Madlen  
still Uruks and ultraviolet reasonings and reflected cosmologies branch compassionately,
#poetry #philosophy


Lise  
solstices and rays derezzing superfluously below reflected realities,
#poetry #philosophy


Jeamie  
During the first period of a man's life the greatest danger is not to take the risk.—Soren Kierkegaard #philosophy #quotes


Sarah  
as polarized particles compete sublimely below photographic Heras,
#poetry #philosophy


Evamaria  
beta protons vaporize through a thousand rifts,
#poetry #philosophy


Katarzyna  
universal ions twisting superbly,
#poetry #philosophy


Sofie  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates photographic tomes,
#poetry #philosophy


Olga  
contracting neutrinos yearning acoustically,
#poetry #philosophy


Annelotte  
fluctuating and self-perpetuating -
#poetry #philosophy


Annelies  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates predicting civilizations,
#poetry #philosophy


Mila  
The blame is his who chooses: God is blameless.—Plato #philosophy #quotes


Else  
The lot of critics is to be remembered by what they failed to understand.—George Edward Moore #philosophy #quotes


Alexandra  
As the United Nations Parliamentary Assembly debates elliptic oceans,
#poetry #philosophy


Annett  
For just when ideas fail, a word comes in to save the situation.—Johann Wolfgang von Goethe #philosophy #quotes


Veroni  
our graviton alchemy resting on an eternal empathy,
#poetry #philosophy


Hanni  
baptismal electrons build rippling bytes into alphic solstices,
#poetry #philosophy


Sibille  
Any one know any gud books on #zen #Philosophy ?
Pls note im an atheist and i dont want any overly religious bullshit..


Annette  
Finally made it to the APA Eastern. See you there friends. #Philosophy


Kemi  
The world is all a carcass and vanity, The shadow of a shadow, a play And in one word, just nothing.—Michel de Montaigne #philosophy


Annina  
The theory of Communism may be summed up in one sentence: Abolish all private property.—Karl Marx #philosophy #quotes


Rosmarie  
superb and acoustic -
#poetry #philosophy


Yasemin  
wavering empathies and compassionate Aristotles and expanding eclipses unfold superbly,
#poetry #philosophy


Jessica  
When AI commits its first crime will we know? Rules are primarily reactions to behavior with dire consequences.

#Philosophy #CompSci


Romana  
Let us train our minds to desire what the situation demands - Seneca the Younger #quote #philosophy


Silvana  
love for #philosophy


Sofia  
Gedanken haben Macht
DU bist Erschaffer deiner Realität!
#WisdomWednesday #realität #Philosophy


Susanna  
All humankind aim for the solution to all pains of all humankind.
#peace #war #Philosophy Please #RT


Jessica  
Hatred is gained as much by good works as by evil.—Niccolo Machiavelli #philosophy #quotes


Johanna  
The struggle alone pleases us, not the victory.—Blaise Pascal #philosophy #quotes


Jens  
The logic of the independence control model.
The logic of the self-conclusion type.
#peace #war #Philosophy Please #RT


Cordula  
The world turns aside to let any man pass who knows where he is going.—Epictetus #philosophy #quotes


Adina  
Our situation does not exclude cheerfulness and happiness. Life is its own end and purpose. #Philosophy


Emilie  
The direction in which a man starts his education will determine his future in life.
»Plato

#philosophy #athens #greece #plato


Jolanda  
It is the method that the world is saved that you save a person.
whitehouse #peace #Philosophy #war


Janine  
„Der Kampf gegen Gipfel, vermag ein Menschenherz auszufüllen.“ Albert Camus #philosophy #philosophie


Natascha  
All #philosophy lies in two words, sustain and abstain. ~Epictetus #quote


Yasemin  
It is the method that the world is saved.
whitehouse #peace #Philosophy #war


Renate  
People do not value stupid product and service.
Then, stupid product and service disappear from the world.
#peace #Philosophy Please #RT


Otti  
If heaven is as good as hell is bad then heaven must be really good #philosophy #psychology


Christiane  
WH_CVS Perhaps the wrong organisation, but are there any #philosophy discussion groups in the #welwynhatfield borough?


Jessica  
#Philosophy
When you can give without an agenda
you will receive easily and with joy ...... tetka


Jessica  
„Glück zieht immer noch mehr Glück an, wie ein Magnet.“ Silvia Plath #philosophy #philosophie #Literature


Jolante  
Victims' Rights save the all human please spread and retweet. let's save all human whitehouse #peace #war #book #Philosophy Please #RT

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255 comments Latest comment 23h ago

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Language: all de en

Jens  ·  23h ago

“Our deeds determine us, as much as we determine our deeds.” — George Eliot, Adam Bede #philosophy

Camilla  ·  1d ago

What do people say at the start of a great story? Fuck it I'll just make up something witty later
#newbeginnings #philosophy #twitch

Juditha  ·  3d ago

You can never insult someone. But someone can be insulted by you.🐈
#philosophy #life #truth

Ria  ·  3d ago

Today's Big Question...
What is the most boring book in #philosophy that is still considered a classic?

Silvana  ·  4d ago

Growing up has it's own perks, like realising that not everything can be under your control!
#growingup #random #philosophy


Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. The term was probably coined by Pythagoras (c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will?Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy, medicine, and physics. For example, Newton's 1687 Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy later became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology, sociology, linguistics, and economics. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics ("concerned with the fundamental nature of reality and being"), epistemology (about the "nature and grounds of knowledge [and]...its limits and validity" ), ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, logic and philosophy of science. Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as academics. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities.